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The Magdalenian settlement is the history of human groups in the period from 18.000 to 11.000 years ago

Magdalenians inhabited the area in the upland regions of west and mid-eastern Europe

Klementowice is the furthest front-end point Magdalenian settlement, in the north eastern direction

During excavations the area of 350 square meters was examined and more than 50.000 artefacts were found

Radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of the settlement in Klementowice to 15.000 years ago

The natural environment resembled contemporary tundra with frozen ground and a domination of graminaceous vegetation

All the animal remains found on the excavation site belong to a horse (Equus ferus)

The basic material for the manufacturing of tools was flint

Most of flints were brought to Klementowice from over 80 km distance

The tools were used primarily in the flaying of particular elements of hunted game

Some of them were used as elements of projectile weapons

Within the site as well as in it vicinity, traces of settlement form the younger periods were found

Stratigraphy and dating

One of the fundamental assumptions underlying the studies in Klementowice, resumed in 2007, was to precisely establish the stratigraphic position of archaeological artefacts and to associate them with specific genetic horizons of the soil. The surface surveys conducted so far, the methods used, as well as the results of laboratory analyses allowed to create the foundation for the establishment of stratigraphy at the site. They also served as the starting point for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironment within the site and in its nearest surroundings. In both concentrations A and B the artefacts occurred in the Ap, Eet and Bt1 soil horizons and within the documented cryogenic structures.

Until recently, the chronology of the Magdalenian site in Klementowice was only based on typological data. Radiocarbon dating complemented by the dating obtained by the luminescent method allowed to determine the date of the camp to 15 000 years ago.


Klementowice, concentration B. A fragment of the N profile in trench no. 30/2011 with marked sampling points and the results of radiometric dating.


Calibrated radiocarbon date from Klementowice


 Klementowice, concentration A. Distribution of the artefacts discovered during the excavations within the cryogenic structure (ice-wedge pseudomorph). 


see more:

Tadeusz Wiśniewski (ed.),  Klementowice. A Magdalenian site in eastern Poland, Lublin 2015 /p. 30-40, 260-264/

Tadeusz Wiśniewski, Barbara Niezabitowska- Wiśniewska (eds.),  Klementowice - obozowisko ze schyłku epoki lodowej we wschodniej Polsce /Klementowice - A late Ice Age settlement in Eastern Poland/, Lublin 2013 /p. 7/