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The Magdalenian settlement is the history of human groups in the period from 18.000 to 11.000 years ago

Magdalenians inhabited the area in the upland regions of west and mid-eastern Europe

Klementowice is the furthest front-end point Magdalenian settlement, in the north eastern direction

During excavations the area of 350 square meters was examined and more than 50.000 artefacts were found

Radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of the settlement in Klementowice to 15.000 years ago

The natural environment resembled contemporary tundra with frozen ground and a domination of graminaceous vegetation

All the animal remains found on the excavation site belong to a horse (Equus ferus)

The basic material for the manufacturing of tools was flint

Most of flints were brought to Klementowice from over 80 km distance

The tools were used primarily in the flaying of particular elements of hunted game

Some of them were used as elements of projectile weapons

Within the site as well as in it vicinity, traces of settlement form the younger periods were found

Red artefacts

Red chalybeate materials (Red artefacts) are called "ochre" or "hematite". During the excavations at the site they were discovered in the form of small lumps and spots of more or less regular outline, a number of them were filled with flint artefacts and stones. The hue, which is classified as red by convention, is in reality more cherry red and cherry pink with shades of red and yellow. Some lumps were modelled in certain shapes or showed intentionally made cuts. Methods applied in mineralogy and organic chemistry allow for a partial reconstruction of their usage in the past and determine their place of origin.

Red chalybeate materials have not only ingraining but also contracting properties useful for medical purposes. They were also used for leather tanning.         

 

 

see more:

Tadeusz Wiśniewski (ed.),  Klementowice. A Magdalenian site in eastern Poland, Lublin 2015 /p. 320-335/

Tadeusz Wiśniewski, Barbara Niezabitowska- Wiśniewska (eds.),  Klementowice - obozowisko ze schyłku epoki lodowej we wschodniej Polsce /Klementowice - A late Ice Age settlement in Eastern Poland/, Lublin 2013 /p. 13/